One-horned Rhinoceros



One-horned rhinoceros is native to Indian sub-continent and it is the largest rhino species in the world. One-horned rhinoceros population was severely depleted due to hunting and it is listed as vulnerable on the IUCN Red list.

Sanjay Gandhi Biological Park, Patna is famous for successful conservation breeding of one horned rhinoceros.

In the mid of year 1979, this Park received one pair of rhino named 'Kancha' and 'Kanchi' from State of Assam. Both these rhinos were sub-adult. Almost after 3 years, in the year 1982 one rescued rhino (named Raju) from Bettiah forest (at present Valmiki Tiger Reserve) came to this zoo, which led to the start of conservation breeding of rhino in this park. In the year 1988 one female rhino (Hartali) took birth from successful conjugation of Raju and Kanchi.

Again in 1991, same pair of rhino bred again and one more female rhino was added in the list. The first two rhino of this park named Kancha and Kanchi finally lead to the birth of one male rhino in the year 1993. This showed that all rhino of this park are potential breeder.

Hartali the first rhino calf of this park has produced eight calf till date and she considered to be one of the most successful breeding female as far as captive breeding in rhino is concerned.

Park management is very sensitive towards inbreeding of rhino. So, to improve genetic diversity one male rhino 'Ayodhya' and one female rhino 'Gari' were brought to this Park under animal exchange programme from Delhi Zoo and San diago Zoo, U.S.A. respectively. Sanjay Gandhi Biological Park, Patna has provided rhino to Delhi, Kanpur, Ranchi, Hyderabad zoo and country like U.S.A. At present Sanjay Gandhi Biological Park, has 6 male and 6 female rhinos. Park management is always striving to sustain the captive one horned rhino population by providing natural environment in the form of muddy moat area, clean night house, etc.


Per animal per day

  • Deer mesh - 6.30 Kgs,
  • Gram- 1.40 Kgs
  • Wheat- 1.20 kgs.
  • Wheat flour- 0.85 Kg.
  • Bhusa-11.5 Kgs.
  • Sudan/ Berseem grass-40.00 Kgs.
  • Sugar cane (November to February) - 15.00 Kgs.
  • Banana- 0.750 Kg.
  • Besan- 0.400 Kg.
  • Moong- 0.50 gm.
  • Bran- 0.500 Kg.
  • It is standard diet and it varies with season to season.

  • Conservation Status: Vulnerable
  • They have prehensile lips that are specially adapted to grasp the grass they eat. They occasionally eat leaves, fruit, and crops as well.
  • To combat the heat, the rhinos eat during the cooler parts of the day and immerse themselves in nearby rivers and muddy areas during the hottest parts of the day.
  • Although they weigh up to 2200 kg, they are considered to be good swimmers. Sometimes, they eat the aquatic plants also.
  • In captivity, four rhinos are known to have lived over 40 years, the oldest living to be 47.

  • संरक्षण स्थिति: असुरक्षित
  • उनके पास परिग्राही होंठ होते हैं जो विशेष रूप से उनके द्वारा खाए जाने वाले घास को पकड़ने के लिए अनुकूलित होते हैं। कभी-कभार वे पत्तियां, फल और फसलें भी खाते हैं।
  • गर्मी का मुकाबला करने के लिए, गैंडे दिन के ठंडे पहर में भोजन करते हैं और दिन के सबसे गर्म पहर के दौरान पास की नदियों और कीचड़ वाले क्षेत्रों में विसर्जित होते जाते हैं।
  • हालांकि उनका वजन 2200 किलोग्राम तक होता है, पर वे अच्छे तैराक माने जाते हैं। कभी-कभी, वे जलीय पौधे भी खाते हैं।
  • कैद में, चार गैंडे 40 से अधिक वर्षों तक जीवित रहे हैं, जिनमें सबसे बुजुर्ग 47 वर्ष तक जीवित रहा।

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